The coordination training we received as children through the developmental stage of crawling set the foundation for right and left brain hemisphere communication. Since the right hemisphere of the brain controls the muscles on the left side of the body and visa versa, the oppositional nature of arm and leg coordination during crawling activates the nerves across the corpus callosum connecting the two brain hemispheres. As adults, the continued integration of the two sides can result in better coordination, balance and efficient movement. The nerve networks can be stimulated and developed through cross-crawling exercises that utilize oppositional movement patterns.
Although you could crawl on the floor, the “crawling” in cross-crawling does not mean you have to replicate the movement of babies. The main intention of every exercise is to use the opposing arm and leg. The exercises can be performed in supine, quadruped, sitting, or standing positions. It is also beneficial to try variations that move the limbs in the sagittal, coronal or transverse planes for better spatial awareness.
The following are some samples, but certainly not all the possible options. Be creative and come up with your own choreography that serves the needs of your clients. Do a few repetitions of each action focusing on the ones that are most difficult for your client to achieve. A more challenging combination is to string several different variations in a row requiring quicker changes, rather than repeating one exercise several times. Even harder is to do a combination of several different variations and then decrease the time it takes to complete the entire set.
If your client has difficulty performing cross-crawl exercises, that is an indication that coordination skills are lacking and the exercises should be added to your client’s daily practice. The senior population is one that can especially benefit by preventing falls (and possible breaks) though improved balance and coordination. In addition, clients with a homolateral gait (monkey walk) where the same arm and leg swing together can also benefit. I started doing these exercises with one of my clients who has Parkinson’s and he found them to be very useful in improving his gait and spatial awareness.
1) Lie of the floor with knees bent and feet flat of the floor. Cross the right elbow to touch the left knee. Return to the starting position. Repeat on the opposite side touching the left elbow to the right knee.
2) Lie flat on the floor with straight legs together and straight arms by your sides. Slide open the right arm along the floor and left leg away from the midline along the floor at the same time and return them back to the center starting position (similar to the action of making a snow angel). Repeat on the other side sliding the left arm and right leg away and back.
1) Start on all fours with hands below the shoulders and your face looking toward the floor. Simultaneously reach the left arm parallel to the floor by your ear and right leg off the floor in the opposite direction behind you parallel to the floor. Return them at the same time and repeat the opposite side using the right arm and left leg.
2) Try the above exercise with variations. Reach the left arm to the side (rather than overhead) parallel to the floor and take the right leg either back or sideways off the floor to the opposite side like airplane wings (leg side off the floor is more challenging to core strength). Repeat the opposite side using the right arm and left leg.
1) Sit in a chair with feet flat on the floor and arms down by your sides. Step the left foot forward on the floor and reach the right arm out in front of you parallel to the floor. Return to the starting position and then reach the right foot and left arm. This exercise could also be performed with the left foot stepping to the side and the right arm reaching laterally to the opposite side or the left arm reaching back while tucking the right leg under the chair (reaching behind would not be recommended for someone with shoulder issues).
2) Sit in a chair with feet flat on the floor and arms down by your side. Simultaneously step the left foot over the right foot onto the floor, take the right hand and place it on the left hip, and touch the left index finger to the nose. Return to the starting neutral position. Repeat to the other side moving the right foot across the left foot, left hand to right hip and right index finger on your nose.
1) Stand with legs hip distance apart and arms by your sides. Raise the right arm reaching toward the ceiling while simultaneously bending the left knee and raising the knee off the floor in a marching position. Return to the starting position. Do the opposite side raising the left arm and right knee.
2) Stand with legs hip distance apart and arms by your sides. Touch the right elbow to the left knee while simultaneously touching the back of your head with the palm of your left hand. Return to the starting position. Do the opposite side touching the left elbow to the right knee while simultaneously touching the back of your head with the palm of your right hand.
Balance can be improved in the senior population not only with cross-crawling exercises, but also exercises that cross the midline to transfer weight from one leg to another. One of my clients was going to quit her line dancing class because she was frustrated with her poor balance negatively affecting the quick transitions required by the choreography. After about a month and a half of practicing her exercises daily at home, the transition was remarkable! She no longer had problems with her balance and was able to perform more complicated steps. She would have missed out on something fun that provided exercise and social contact had she not made a commitment to practicing.
CROSSING THE MIDLINE
The “jazz square” is useful for practicing weight transfer from one leg to the other crossing the midline. Some people teach the jazz square starting with a forward step, but crossing the midline first may be more useful to practice weight transference.
Start standing with legs together. Cross the right leg over the left and transfer the weight to the right foot. Pick up the left back leg and step backward. Shift your weight right to step sideways onto the right leg. Step the left leg forward. The weight will be on the left leg (instead of on two feet as in the beginning) and the step begins again with the right leg crossing over the left to transfer the weight to the right foot. Repeat to the same side several times. Try it on the other side starting with the left crossing over the right, step back with the right, shift side with the left foot and step forward with the right foot.
Switching sides can add a level of challenge. When changing sides the last move in the step is dropped. There are a total of four moves in the step (cross, back, side, front). Perform the jazz square three times with the right foot crossing first over the left foot first. On the fourth set only do the first three moves (cross, back, side). This will put the weight on the right foot. Start the jazz square using the left foot crossing over the right for three sets. On the fourth set only do the first three moves (cross, back, side). This will put the weight on the left foot and the pattern can begin again.
Coordination and balance are learned skills that begin in our earliest developmental stages. These abilities are perfected through movement challenges and practice. The body in its effort to be efficient will provide less wiring for these activities if they are no longer being used. As we age our activities must reflect a movement vocabulary commensurate with the quality of life we wish to maintain. Cross-crawling exercises that integrate brain function can improve coordination and balance making us more alert and aware. Once again the old adage of “use if or lose it” rings true.